Thursday, August 27, 2020
IRISH POTATO FAMINE SOURCES - Essay Example Be that as it may, the expanded populace made shortage in land. The quantity of individuals was surpassing the accessible land. The legislature needed to gadget a route for jumping land. The little plots that were given by the administration could just bear the very potato. Populace increment and land shortage can, on a point of view, be supposed to be the principal negative effect that potato brought to Ireland. Since the little land could just contain the potato crop, the individuals of Ireland exclusively depended on this harvest as the staple food and furthermore as the main wellspring of pay from its deals. At the point when the potato curse hit the nation, the individuals had been gotten uninformed. As their yields were in effect powerlessly demolished before their eyes by the scourge, trouble caught the better piece of them as they pondered of the accessible arrangements. The curse was removing the main wellspring of life. The individuals began to keep because of need from satisfactory food. Starvation made the individuals powerless and defenseless against a wide range of infections. Typhus, Dysentery and Relapsing fever happened upon them like plague (source 3). With the starvation and the development of the dangerous illnesses, life took a horrendous turn on numerous average citizens. Difficulty turned into an every day buddy. The populace had moved their concentration from potato cultivating to taking a shot at the open streets (source 2 and 3). A report by Wexford Independent portrays people in general as low salary worker (source 3). The individuals were working in the incredibly chilly climate and their wages couldn't permit them to purchase comfortable garments. The virus caused the provocative of their lungs and fever. The poor compensations made the cover an uncommon extravagance for these individuals (source10). These individuals were additionally strolling significant distances and without food to eat. The greater part of them would drop and kick the bucket while at work (source2). Therefore, the main driver of their tribulations was cold and craving. The poor Irish swarmed the streets, asking
Saturday, August 22, 2020
Unit 4 Scenario - Essay Example The term of the parcel begins from 6pm to 12 PM, state, 6 hours out of every day. Also, this parking area will be guided by a staff part at an expense of $10 every hour. It implies that the staff should be paid a measure of $60 every day, and $1800 every month. Other than this, an extra cost will be charged for the valuable utilization of parking area. Subsequently, so as to assess and embrace the most fitting choice in regard of the stopping and upkeep cost, it is important to investigate the peripheral income and minimal costing procedure. Under negligible costing, just factor costs are charged to cost units. Ã¢â¬Å"Comparable to any benefit boosting firm, a superbly serious firm delivers the amount of yield in the short run that creates the most extreme contrast between all out income with all out cost, which is monetary benefit. This benefit augmenting level of creation is likewise accomplished by the correspondence between minimal income and peripheral expense. At this creation level, the firm can't build benefit by changing the degree of creation. The examination of minimal income and minor expense can be accomplished through a table of numbers or with negligible income and peripheral expense curvesÃ¢â¬ (Marginal Analysis, 2007). The arrangement is proposed by the bank was to charge a greater expense for parking garage. This is on the grounds that, through higher charging for stopping, it is conceivable to decrease the issue related with the stopping in a specific way. The primary explanation behind the higher charge set by the bank is that to make it conceivable the accessibility of appropriate stopping offices. At whatever point the charge for stopping expands, at that point the time spent for stopping will naturally be decreased. Because of this, it is conceivable to make the parking area advantageously whenever viably. Also, so as to defeat this particular issue, it is important to think about the idea of flawless rivalry and
Friday, August 21, 2020
The Curious Incident of the Dog in the Night - An Excellent Essay TopicThe Curious Incident of the Dog in the Night is a great essay topic to use for home study because it can be used to talk about relationships, sex, religion, religion and a variety of other things. This book is the work of the author A.J. Watt, who says he wants to explore relationships in general.The Curious Incident of the Dog in the Night is an excellent selection for home study because the essay topics are fun and interesting and they also have a touch of mystery that adds to the book's appeal. The essay topics that are included in this book cover many things including school assignments, fashion, food, politics, relationships, science, reading, spirituality, crime, behavior, and much more.The essay topics are divided into four sections: classroom discussion, professor O'Disaide, classic novels, and special interest books. Each section has one to two examples that illustrate a concept for students to use in the ir studies. The professor of the class and his commentary is usually included in each section. The chapters begin with Professor O'Disaide which focused on what this professor did to 'catch' a cheating student and what the student did to avoid being caught.The book's second section, The Curious Incident of the Dog in the Night, introduces the concept of love and the relationship between a human and a dog. There are lots of examples of common actions and expressions that show that we all love dogs. In the chapter titled 'The Dog, the Murderer and the Murder,' the writer examines the relationship between a man and a dog and how the relationship made the man a murderer.The third section, The Dog in the Night, is based on a true story that illustrates a few facts about love and the concept of relationships. Theidea is that the writer loves dogs and when he saw a strange man approaching his dog, he looked into the man's eyes. After that, the man started to attack the dog and after the do g's owner was able to get it away from the man, the man turned and ran.The final essay is the most difficult of the essays and the conclusion on the novel level. It starts with a background paragraph of a novelist who describes how she became successful, but the writer says she could not write her own stories because she always felt like she was writing about the same things. She started writing about the mysteries of the mind and the need to fill the gap between theory and practice.For home study, the book is available as an audio book or CD-ROM that can be listened to while reading or can be read at the same time as the audio book. This eBook also includes a glossary of common phrases that are included in the book. In addition, there are a free quiz and a short quiz.This essay is great for home study because it is not overly difficult or challenging. It is a good option for using for college level courses because it is fun and light and does not have too many technical terms. The concept is quite simple but very effective.
Monday, May 25, 2020
A nautical mile is a unit of measurement used on water by sailors and/or navigators in shipping and aviation. It is the average length of one minute of one degree along a great circle of the Earth. One nautical mile corresponds to one minute of latitude. Thus, degrees of latitude are approximately 60 nautical miles apart. By contrast, the distance of nautical miles between degrees of longitude is not constant because lines of longitude become closer together as they converge at the poles. Nautical miles are typically abbreviated with the symbols nm, NM or nmi. For example, 60 NM represents 60 nautical miles. In addition to being used in navigation and aviation, nautical miles are also used polar exploration and international laws and treaties regarding territorial water limits. Nautical Mile History Until 1929, there was not an internationally agreed upon distance or definition for the nautical mile. In that year, the First International Extraordinary Hydrographic Conference was held in Monaco and at the conference, it was determined that the international nautical mile would be exactly 6,076 feet (1,852 meters). Currently, this is the only definition in use widely and it is the one that is accepted by the International Hydrographic Organization and the International Bureau of Weights and Measures. Prior to 1929, different countries had different definitions of the nautical mile. For example, the United States measurements were based on the Clarke 1866 Ellipsoid and the length of one minute of arc along a great circle. With these calculations, a nautical mile was 6080.20 feet (1,853 meters). The U.S. abandoned this definition and accepted the international measure of a nautical mile in 1954. In the United Kingdom, the nautical mile was based on the knot. A knot is a unit of speed derived from dragging pieces of knotted string from sailing ships. The number of knots falling into the water over a given period of time determines the knots per hour. Using knots, the U.K. determined that one knot was one nautical mile and one nautical mile represented 6,080 feet (1853.18 meters). In 1970, the U.K. abandoned this definition of the nautical mile and now uses exactly 1,853 meters as its definition. Ã Using Nautical Miles Today, one nautical mile still equals exactly the internationally agreed upon measure of 1,852 meters (6,076 feet). One of the most important concepts in understanding the nautical mile though is its relation to latitude. Because a nautical mile is based on EarthÃ¢â¬â¢s circumference, an easy way to understand the calculation of a nautical mile is to imagine the Earth being cut in half. Once cut, the circle of the half can be divided into equal portions of 360Ã °. These degrees can then be divided into 60 minutes. One of these minutes (or minutes of arc as they are called in navigation) along a great circle on Earth represents one nautical mile. In terms of statute or land miles, a nautical mile represents 1.15 miles. This is because one degree of latitude is approximately 69 statute miles in length. 1/60th of that measure would be 1.15 statute miles. Another example is traveling around the Earth at the equator to do this, one would have to travel 24,857 miles (40,003 km). When converted to nautical miles, the distance would be 21,600 NM. In addition to its use for navigational purposes, nautical miles are also still significant markers of speed as the term knot is today used to mean one nautical mile per hour. Therefore if a ship is moving at 10 knots, it is moving at 10 nautical miles per hour. The term knot as it is used today is derived from the previously mentioned practice of using a log (a knotted rope tied to a ship) to gauge the speed of a ship. To do this, the log would be thrown into the water and trailed behind the ship. The number of knots that passed off of the ship and into the water over a certain amount of time would be counted and the number counted determined speed in Ã¢â¬Å"knots.Ã¢â¬ Present-day knot measurements are determined with more technologically advanced methods, however, such as mechanical tow, Doppler radar, and/or GPS. Nautical Charts Because nautical miles have constant measurement following lines of longitude, they are extremely useful in navigation. To make navigation easier, sailors and aviators have developed nautical charts which serve as a graphical representation of the Earth with a focus on its areas of water. Most nautical charts contain information on the open sea, coastlines, navigable inland waters and canal systems. Usually, nautical charts use one of three map projections: the gnomic, polyconic and Mercator. The Mercator projection is the most common of these three because on it, lines of latitude and longitude cross at right angles forming a rectangular grid. On this grid, the straight lines of latitude and longitude work as straight line courses and can easily be plotted through the water as navigable routes. The addition of the nautical mile and its representation of one minute of latitude make navigation relatively easy in open water, thus making it an extremely important component of exploration, shipping, and geography.
Friday, May 15, 2020
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Analysis of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Genetics Christopher Elliott Brandman University Analysis of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Genetics Over the past decade, the medical communityÃ¢â¬â¢s understanding of chronic illnesses has greatly increased. This increase is the result of improvements in technology and techniques that have clarified some of the unknown mechanisms associated with disease. For example, innovations in genetic sequencing have allowed researchers to analyze the genetic variables and abnormalities that could contribute to an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s development of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). In fact, over 20 different genes have been identified that increase oneÃ¢â¬â¢s susceptibility of developing ALS. Therefore, an analysis of a recent research study, which elaborates on the genetics of ALS, is essential to understanding these types of investigations and how they are significant in modern medicine. With that being said, the purpose of this paper is to review a recently published investigation pertaining to ALS genetics by Cady et al. (2014) in JAMA Neurology. Review ALS is a devastating disorder that has an incidence rate of 5,000 individuals and a prevalence rate of 30,000 (Abel, Powell, Andersen Al-Chalabi, 2012). According to Abel et al. (2012), the onset of ALS is between the ages of 40 and 70 and has no distinct ethnic or racial boundaries. ALS can be subdivided into two categories: Sporadic and Familial. Individuals with sporadic ALS do notShow MoreRelatedSpeech Amyotrophic Lateral Disease : Is A Chronic And Terminal Disease That Affects The Lower And Upper Motor Neurons1725 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThis research paper is being written to address Amyotrophic lateral disease (ALS), which is a chronic and terminal disease that affects the lower and upper motor neurons (Srivastava, 2014). ALS is usually fatal within a few years of inception and affects 2-5 per 100,000 people annually worldwide (Donnelly, Grima, Sattler, 2014). This disease usually affects the patient physically and emotionally and as well as their support system. As of this ye ar, no cure has been developed for this disease. TheRead MoreGene Mutation And How It Causes Disease936 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesof diseases or disorders, I have chosen to look into the rare form of juvenile amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, known as ALS4. The purposes of this paper are to determine the gene mutation and how it causes the disease. Specific Mutation Researchers believed that SETX gene is related to the helicase enzyme that is responsible for unwinding the two strands of DNA in order for the proteins to fix the damage area (Genetic Home Reference (GHR), 2016b, para. 1). The SETX gene provides the instructions forRead MoreUnraveling the Function of Disease-Related Gene695 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pageschallenging task of a genetic engineer. However, cellular model became a favorite model for biologists due to its inexpensive in generation and maintenance of culture, avoid risk of losing any precious biological material and expedite the various inherent intriguing biological mechanisms at first instance before testing for the in vivo application. Cellular models also provide a great avenue for studying the disease mechanism and drug discovery. To generate the cellular genetic model, TALENs with theRead MoreThe Biological Nature Of Genes1063 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagessecond portion of A History of Genetics by A.H. Sturtevant, the foundational r esearch and theories provided by Mendel and his contemporaries are expanded and built upon. Topics discussed in the first half, such as germ Ã¢â¬âplasm theory, inheritance, and chromosomes, are beginning to have their mechanisms uncovered and questions about why they occur are answered. As the second half progresses, Sturtevant discusses the beginnings of many modern-day topics and fields of Genetics. Through continued chromosomalRead MoreDescribe How Mature Somatic Cells Can Be Reprogrammed to Become Pluripotent991 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesgenes are amplified. The amplified fragment is then introduced into SeV vector and are allowed to recover and propagate. This is followed by whole genome expression analysis, detection of telomerase activity, Bisulfite genomic sequencing, RNA isolation, RT-PCR, and real-time quantitative PCR analysis, DNA fingerprinting, southern blot analysis, and last karyotyping. (7) The induction of pluripotent stem cells by using the sendai virus is a substitute of retroviruses, using the similar mechanism, but sendaiRead MoreA Graduate Program Director And Committee Members1072 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesmembers, I have always been interested in learning more about the underlying secrets of living organisms and it intrigued me to prefer Biology compared to other science subjects. I completed my undergraduate and MS degree from the Department of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology at the University of Dhaka which is the top-ranked biology program of Bangladesh. For further studies, I decided to come to the United States because of the tremendous research facilities and funding, eclectic courseRead MoreGene Therapy And Delivery Methods1245 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesgene present in somatic cells. The gene which is likely to be harmful is recessive gene so if we inherit two copies of recessive gene from our parent, then disease will occur ( Carroll, 2011).Now days every year noticeable children are born with genetic disease such as cystic fibrosis, combined immunodeficiency syndromes, muscular dystrophy, hemophilia, and many cancers result from the presence of defective genes. Gene therapy is an inventive technique that uses genes to fight any disease in theRead MoreThe Human Organ That Leaves Developmental Biologists1725 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesthe centuries that the human life expectancy has just about tripled. But there is always a catch. Diseases such as AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s, HuntingtonÃ¢â¬â¢s, ParkinsonÃ¢â¬â¢s, and ALS (Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis) have increased in occurrence to such alarming numbers. There is the fear that we might not develop a strong enough understanding of the genetic and epigenetic factors influencing certain kinds of neurodevelopmental, neurodegenerative, and mental disorders in time before they become too widespread to controlRead MoreStill Alice. Living With An Insidious Cognitive Declining1656 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesdisease. In determining the accuracy in Still Alice, it is important to note that this film, co-directed by Richard Glatzer, who was diagnosed with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis or ALS before filming, is based on a novel written by a neuroscientist named Lisa Genova (Shoard, Ã¢â¬Å"Still Alice co-director Richard Glatzer dies aged 63Ã¢â¬ ). The following analysis will encompass an in-depth examination on the medical process Alice goes through, the progression of her symptoms, and her treatment. This will beRead More Genetic Testing and the US Healthcare System Essay2446 Words Ã |Ã 10 Pagesavailability of genetic testing has made it feasible to diagnose and determine the risk of disease before the actual onset, and therefore reduce our dependence upon costly medical procedures. Thus, to address our concerns of spiraling healthcare costs and inequity in healthcare distribution, I propose the widespread use of genetic testing in the US healthcare system. What is Genetic Testing? According to the National Human Genome Research Institute, Ã¢â¬Å"Genetic testing is the analysis of human DNA
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: Write a report on "Australia and its Healthcare System". Answer: Introduction Universal health care or universal health coverage, generally refers the system related to the health care, which focused on providing health care, as well as, the financial protection to all the individuals of the particular country. According to the Director-General of the WHO, Dr Margaret Chan, universal health coverage is the single and most powerful concept offered to the public health. Universal health care unifies all the services and delivers them in the most integrated and comprehensive way, based on the primary health care. The global coalition, nowadays, have accelerated the access to the universal coverage. It has been observed that the global coalition consisting of more than 500 health and development organizations globally is urging the governments for accelerating the reforms to ensure every individual at any place, can access the services related to the quality health without being subjected to poverty ("The importance of government policies in reducing employment related health inequalities", 2010). Further, the coalition lays emphasis on the necessity of the universal access to various health services for the purpose of saving lives, terminating extreme poverty, and building resilience against different health effects due to the climate change, as well as, ending the occurrence of the deadly epidemics like Ebola. In this article, we are going to discuss about Australia and its healthcare policies that aids in the process of the universal health coverage. Various policies like the Health Insurance Commission, Department of Veterans, The Department of Family and Childrens Services, The Health Department of Western Australia, and Medicare policy are present in Australia that promotes the cause of equal health to everyone and provides the financial aids to the patients (Bates, 2010). Australia and its Healthcare system Healthcare provisions over the decade: Australia consists of a complex system of health care, including various kinds of services, providers, and a wide range of regulatory mechanisms and the funding mechanisms. In Australia, both the public, as well as, the private sectors provide health care and funding involving all the levels of government in the process. Australia, mainly has a tax-funded system of the health care, with subsidized medical services via the universal national health insurance scheme. Moreover, the health services in Australia are administered by the federal system by Australias government, which are delivered by various publics, as well as, the private providers. The Australian Government is also known as the Federal Government, or the Commonwealth focuses on funding instead of providing health services. The government also subsidizes various pharmaceuticals, as well as, the residential care involving the elderly (Humphreys Weinand, 2010). The main changes that h ave been observed in the health care system of Australia over the past decade consists of the public support provided for the private health insurance, a rise in the Medicare schedule fee from 85% to 100% for the general practitioners to counteract the drop occurring in the bulk-billing, various efforts in the formulation and implementation of the national policies with the help of various intergovernmental forums, like the Australian Health Ministers Conference and the Council of Australian Governments, and the national government funding for coordinated care programs. Increased attention to be laid in the planning of the workforce following a report made by the Productivity Commission based on the shortages of professional and inflexible practices related to the healthcare, more initiatives taken related to the e-health, and huge attention was paid towards the quality of the care, as well as, the safety of the patient (Murray Skull, 2005). Financial model adopted to ensure health for all: The Commonwealth plays the leadership role in financing and health policy-making given it the constitutional mandate and the power of the purse. The Commonwealth funds, administers the schedule related to the Medicare Benefits, which includes payments to the practitioners, the Pharmaceutical Benefits Schedule involving the subsidized drug purchases, and the Australian Health Care Agreements, which contributes to the funds to various states for running the public hospitals. Moreover, the Commonwealth also makes Goods and Services Revenue Grants to make the general budget revenue provided to the states, as well as, the territories, it proposes direct grants to various non government organizations related to the health services, and also negotiates with the Public Health Outcome Funding Agreements existing in the states for ensuring undertaking of the certain activities related to the public health (Cai Kalb, 2006). Various policies and programs have been adopted by the government to provide financial aid to the citizens. For instance, Medicare is the service of the federal government that provides services and payment for the health care, as well as, the medicine. The Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme made by the government also subsidizes the cost pertaining to most of the medicines. The National Health and Medical Research Council is the main funding body of the Australian government for health, as well as, the medical research. The Health Insurance Commission is another body that is involved in the processes and pays all the claims and benefits, as well as, the records on the relevant data based on the Medicare and the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (Donato Segal, 2013). Principles Adopted To Ensure Effective Health Care Systems: The development of various sets of principles by the Commission focuses on shaping the whole health, as well as, the aged care system to the large extent covering all the public, private, community, as well as, hospital based services. These priniciples include the provision of the comprehensive services throughout the continuum of care, patient focus, which means that the delivery of the care should meet the needs of the patients instead of the physician, geographic coverage meaning that the services should reach to every corner of the regions without neglecting the smaller and rural areas, delivery of standardized care with the help of interprofessional teams, which in turn will promote the continuity of the health care, information systems that maintains the electronic health records of all the patients, governance structure, which focuses on the working of various organizations and services in collaboration with each oth er for the upliftment of the integrated health systems, and financial management to provide better health care to all the individuals irrespective of their social and economical status (Day, 2008). Relation between the policies and the principles: Various policies have been implemented for carrying out these principles related to the provision of the health care services. For instance, Territory Health Services involve the administration of the health services for the individuals across the Northern Territory covering its vast geographic area. The Council of Australian Governments, coordinates Commonwealth, state, as well as, the territory governments activities at the highest level (Podger, 2014). The Department of Family and Childrens Services brings together the income support, as well as, the range of various community services to the single department. The Department of Veterans Affairs focuses on paying compensation, as well as, the income support, allied health, fund hospital services, community support programs, and counselling for all the war veterans and their dependants. The department mainly of the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health aids special funding pr ograms for various Indigenous Australians and funding of various community-controlled health programs to deliver the additional health care (Etheredge, 2005). Role of the government in the healthcare system: Behind the conductance of the services related to the health system, there is a network of Australias government and its support mechanisms, which enables various health policies, legislation, regulation, coordination, as well as, the funding aspects related to the delivery of the quality health services. The governance, coordination, as well as, the regulation of the health services in Australia is a big task, and involves the responsibility of all the divisions and the levels of the government in a joint collaboration, with the planning, as well as, delivering of the health care services (Blewett, 2010). Legislation and the policies: The health care system of the Australia is an extensive, complex, loosely organized, and technically sophisticated system. High standards related to the medical care, usually prevail throughout various health care industries, as well as, the whole of the country. The health care system is described by various legislations and policies focusing on the equity of the services. The federal structure of the Australias government consists of the Commonwealth, State, as well as, territory, which all played the role and are involved in the Australias health system (Duckett, 2008). The dominant role played by the practitioners in the private sector during the provision of the care, usually on the basis of the fee-forservice is reduced with the increasing influence of the governments on the structure of the services related to the health care through different financing arrangements. There is universal access to the quality related to the medical care through the Commonwealth, as well as, the State funding system for Medicare. Moreover, there is a substantial private funding, which is regulated and supported by the Commonwealth to offer a degree of care in the system, particularly for the hospital care (Radford, 2010). Promotion of the universal health coverage in the country: The Universal Health Coverage is becoming the main and the growing focus of health globally, as well as, of sustainable development. Coverage of different population groups, financial protection, as well as, the benefits packages are the basic necessities of Universal Health Coverage in the global dialogue. The approach of Australia for delivering health services is underpinned by the approach of the universal health care system, which includes access of various health care services under the Medicare Benefits Schedule for free, as well as, subsidized health services, various benefits provided for the medical, as well as, the pharmaceutical services, there is an access to the required and affordable medicines via the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS), and as a public patient there is a provision of the free public hospital treatment ("The Adelaide Statement on Health in All Policies: moving towards a shared governance for health and well-being", 2010). Moreover, the private health care system have the provision of the Medicare, which allows the citizens of the country to make a large financial contribution for attaining the health care in revert for the greater choice related to their receiving care (Broadhead, 2010). It has been observed that the Health expenditure is one of the major areas of the Commonwealth spending, and around $65 billion had been spent on the health services in the year 2013-14, which accounted for about 16% of the total expenditure of the Commonwealth. New knowledge, as well as, advancement in the technology is the fundamental drivers in delivering high quality of health care to the citizens of the country. Moreover, the government intervention regarding the supply of health care focuses on providing the cost-effective, quality health care services to the individuals who would otherwise be not able to afford the basic health services even, as this is regarded as the most effec tive, as well as, socially acceptable method to ameliorate the disadvantage faced by these individuals. Hence, these initiatives and policies of the government are contributing to the universal health coverage in the country, irrespective of the individuals social and economic status ("Government plans health and social care integration", 2013). Conclusion Summary of the key highlights: As per the discussion, it has been observed that the Health is of utmost importance in the Australia. The current health system of Australia has many strengths, as well as, the country has also produced an excellent health results for most of its citizens. However, the nature of the Australias health care is really complex and involves the major role of the government in regulating the proper and equal health care services to all the individuals and in the health system. The major expenditure in Australia is seen to be on the health care system with total expenditure of about $140.2 billion in the year 2011-2012, i.e. about 9.5% of the total gross domestic product of the country, compared with about expenditure of $82.9 billion in the year 2001-02 and around $132.6 billion in the 2010-11. Approximately, 70% of the total expenditure on the health care system during the period 2011-12 had been funded by the governments, where about 42.4% was funded by the Australian Government and about 27.3% was funded by the state, as well as, the territorial governments (Pinto, Molnar, Shankardass, OCampo, Bayoumi, 2015). Hence, by the above discussion, we can see that the Australia has made a very great progress regarding the improvement of the health of its entire population and is working towards achieving Universal Health Coverage. References Bates, E. (2010). THE CONSUMER AND THE HEALTH CARE SYSTEM.Community Health Studies,2(2), 73-80. Blewett, N. (2010). THE POLICY CONTEXT IN AUSTRALIA: COMMONWEALTH GOVERNMENT SUPPORT FOR IMPROVED ACCESS TO HEALTH AND BETTER HEALTH*.Community Health Studies,12(1), 106-111. Broadhead, P. (2010). SOCIAL STATUS AND MORBIDITY IN AUSTRALIA.Community Health Studies,9(2), 87-98. Cai, L. Kalb, G. (2006). Health status and labour force participation: evidence from Australia.Health Econ.,15(3), 241-261. Day, G. (2008). Book Review: The Australian health care system.Aust. Health Review,32(2), 371. Donato, R. Segal, L. (2013). Does Australia have the appropriate health reform agenda to close the gap in Indigenous health?.Aust. Health Review. Duckett, S. (2008). The Australian health care system: reform, repair or replace?.Aust. Health Review,32(2), 322. Etheredge, L. (2005). Is It Time For A Government-Run Health Care System?.Health Affairs,24(2), 564-565. Government plans health and social care integration. (2013).Primary Health Care,23(5), 4-4. Humphreys, J. Weinand, H. (2010). HEALTH STATUS AND HEALTH CARE IN RURAL AUSTRALIA: A CASE STUDY.Community Health Studies,13(3), 258-275. Murray, S. Skull, S. (2005). Hurdles to health: immigrant and refugee health care in Australia.Aust. Health Review,29(1), 25. Pinto, A., Molnar, A., Shankardass, K., OCampo, P., Bayoumi, A. (2015). Economic considerations and health in all policies initiatives: evidence from interviews with key informants in Sweden, Quebec and South Australia.BMC Public Health,15(1), 171. Podger, R. (2014). Making Medicare: the Politics of Universal Health Care in Australia.Aust. Health Review,38(1), 119. Radford, A. (2010). IMMUNISATION PATTERNS IN AUSTRALIA: THE PRESENT SITUATION AND SUGGESTED FUTURE STRATEGIES.Community Health Studies,6(3), 228-238. The Adelaide Statement on Health in All Policies: moving towards a shared governance for health and well-being. (2010).Health Promotion International,25(2), 258-260. The importance of government policies in reducing employment related health inequalities. (2010).BMJ,340(jun30 2), c3480-c3480.